INDIA, land of oldest civilizations, mosaic multicultural experiences with rich and myriad attractions making it one of most popular tourist destinations of the world. If we go back in the past or live in the present we find many stories to talk about our nation, every city of this country has a story so let’s get back into the past and learn how this country has its most popular cities of the world may it be for its heritage, festivals, culture and definitely its food but
WHY AREN’T CITIES OF INDIA KNOWN FOR ITS PLANNING? WHAT IS MISSING ABOUT PLANNING IN INDIA?
The Great Bath, Mohenjo-Daro
Going back in time, settlements in India were identified from its early
civilization “The Indus Valley
Civilization” (3300-1300 BCE). Our entire school history had a word to tell
about this civilization. What made this civilization so important for our
nation’s history is it only that it was First Human Settlement along the river
Indus? Honestly, No. It is its planning
Sarvotobhadra Town Planning Design
There is another period where education flourished, it was the Buddhist Period (321 BC- 185 BC), town planning narrations of this era is descripted in ‘Artashastra’ a book written by Chanakya, chief minister in the kingdom Chandragupta Maurya. The capital was laid on grid-iron pattern consisting of 16 sectors, most of the houses had gardens with wells and ponds, waste water was carried out by means of underground drainage, the city of Patiliputra then capital of Mauryan Dynasty is today’s Patna was had a deep moat 180m wide and further protected by ramparts stretching more than 40 km long studded with 64 gates and 570 towers.
Time travelling to the Medievel Period (6th-12th Century) of our nation’s history, the palaces were provided with guard rooms at various strategic points for guards, equipped with arms, weapons, and well–defended by machinery.Common residential houses, houses of Kings, special houses- assembly halls and council chambers, animal- sheds and stables, for cows, horses, and elephants were all planned.
Without checking in to the Golden Era of our nation, “The Mughal Era (1526 AD- 1707 AD)” which was characterized by political unity, centralized administration, a uniform revenue system, fairly a good network of inland trade, growing economic links and overseas trade. The Mughal architecture remembered for combined finest features of Indian and foreign architecture, characterized with domes of various shapes, decorated arcs, tall minarets, balconies, and well balanced proportion of the building is another beautiful part of their architect. Marvelous Mughal gardens constructed between Central Asia and South Asia are beautiful examples of landscape architecture.
During the Colonial rule our nation lost most of its beauty and wealth. British planning for Indian cities labored under serious internal contradictions. As a colonial power, Britain ruled India primarily for its own benefit, yet it had to address all the issues of urban administration that any government confronts: design and control of space; provision of water, sewerage, roads, street lighting; and police. The British introduced concepts of urban planning – based largely on emerging European ideals of health and sanitation: improved roads, spaciousness, order and beautification.
After the nation celebrated its independence in 1947, there were high crisis to tackle over by the Indian Government such as poverty, illitracy, health, education etc,. Here, GoI introduced various policies to solve the issues of the citizens in the nation but the greater challenge was the nation’s growing population which is made India the 2nd highest populated country in world with the population of 135.26 crores (2018). The 5 Year Plans were introduced to solve the country’s socio-economic status, growing population and poverty crisis. In India, 21.9% of the population lives below the national poverty line in 2011. Poverty line estimation in India is based on the consumption expenditure and not on the income levels.
I’m a student of B.Planning at
Nitte School of Architecture, Planning & Design; Bangalore. I would
definitely speak about my own city which was once known to be “Garden City” or “Pensioner’s Paradise”
and today the city is turned out to be a Garbage
City. The infrastructure and landscape of this city wasn’t planned for its
Tender Sure Road Design
Student of B.Planning
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