PMAY URBAN

PMAY URBAN

Owing a house in a country like us is a very difficult need to be fulfilled, even by a middle-class family. And for a family whose basic income is inadequate to own a decent house with basic conveniences likes electricity and water supply and toilet facility has become next to impossible. Therefore, we see more slum accumulation in urban cities. This is happening because to earn a livelihood, and get access to better infrastructure and jobs, excess people move in than move out from developed cities in India. For this, we need affordable housing for the section of society whose income is below the median household income in the society.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana was launched on 25th June 2015 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA), in Mission mode envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022, when the Nation completes 75 years of its Independence. Under it, the Government provides central assistance to the implementing agencies through States/Union Territories and Central Nodal Agencies. The States and Union Territories have been given the power to approve projects which confine to the framework provided in the mission guidelines. This scheme also continues the government’s efforts towards women empowerment by mandating the female head of the family to be the owner or co-owner of the dwelling unit under this mission. The scheme has been divided into four parts or four options based on income, finance, availability of land and, such other factors.

NEEDS

According to the data provided by the 2011 census, approximately 1.77 million people are homeless in India, of which 65.3% are concentrated in the five states; Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat. 

By the year 2030, more than 40% of the Indian population will live in urban India, as against the current figure of 34%, which is likely to create a demand for 25 million additional affordable housing units. For solving this issue, the Indian government has come up with a variety of affordable housing schemes.

AIM

To provide pucca house with basic amenities to all houseless households by 2022.

OBJECTIVES 

1. To study the criteria and features of PMAY- Urban.

2. To help homeless people by providing pucca house with all basic amenities by 2022.

SCOPE

  • “Housing for All” Mission for urban area is being implemented during 2015-2022 and this Mission will provide central assistance to implementing agencies through States and UTs for providing houses to all eligible families/beneficiaries by 2022.
  • Mission will be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) except for the component of credit linked subsidy which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.
  • Mission with all its component has become effective from the date 17.06.2015 and will be implemented up to 31.03.2022

The mission will support construction of houses up to 30 square meter carpet area with basic civic infrastructure. States/UTs will have flexibility in terms of determining the size of house and other facilities at the state level in consultation with the Ministry but without any enhanced financial assistance from Centre. 

Slum redevelopment projects and Affordable Housing projects in partnership should have basic civic infrastructure like water, sanitation, sewerage, road, electricity etc. Urban Local Bodies (ULB) should ensure that individual houses under credit linked interest subsidy and beneficiary led construction should have provision for these basic civic services.

The minimum size of houses constructed under the mission under each component should conform to the standards provided in National Building Code (NBC). If available area of land, however, does not permit building of such minimum size of houses as per NBC and if beneficiary consent is available for reduced size of house, a suitable decision on area may be taken by State/UTs with the approval of SLSMC. All houses built or expanded under the Mission should essentially have toilet facility.

FEATURES

  • The Mission covers the entire urban area consisting of Statutory Towns, Notified Planning Areas, Development Authorities, Special Area Development Authorities, Industrial Development Authorities or any such authority under State legislation which is entrusted with the functions of urban planning & regulations. 
  • All houses under PMAY(U) have basic amenities like toilet, water supply, electricity and kitchen. 
  • The Mission promotes women empowerment by providing the ownership of houses in name of female member or in joint name. Preference is also given to differently abled persons, senior citizens, SCs, STs, OBCs, Minority, single women, transgender and other weaker & vulnerable sections of the society. 
  • A PMAY(U) house ensures dignified living along with sense of security and pride of ownership to the beneficiaries.

                                                                                                                             

                                                                                  Fig 1: Features of PMAY(U)

                                                                                                                                          Source: PMAY


COMPONENTS OF PMAY(U)

                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                     Fig 2: Components of PMAY(U)

                                                                                                                                           Source: PMAY



1.“In-Situ” Slum Redevelopment (ISSR)

Under this option, the central assistance of rupees 1 Lakh per house will be made available for all the houses built for the slum dwellers who are eligible. In-Situ Slum Redevelopment (ISSR) is an initiative to use the land as a resource with the participation of private developers. Flexibility is emphasized under this option as the States or Union Territories are permitted to utilize the rehabilitation grants for any of the slum redevelopment projects. After redevelopment, de-notification of slums by the State/UT government is recommended under the guidelines.

2. Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS)

Under this option, provision for subsidy, on loans from Banks, Housing Finance Companies, and other such institutions for acquiring or constructing houses, is made. Under this, the beneficiaries have been divided into three groups:

  • Economically Weaker Section (EWS) or Low-Income Group (LIG):

              The annual household income limit for the EWS category is rupees 3 lakhs. They are eligible to avail 6.5% of interest subsidy on loans of up to rupees 6 lakhs for twenty years or loan tenure, whichever                   is lower. The house size or the maximum carpet area must be 30 square meters.

              The LIG category is also eligible for 6% subsidy on a loan of rupees 6 lakh for 20 years or loan tenure, whichever is less. But the maximum carpet area allowed for the house is 60 square meters. For                       both the categories, i.e., EWS and LIG, the maximum amount of subsidy is rupees 2,20,000.

  • Middle Income Group- I (MIG-I): 

              Households with an income limit between 6,00,001 to 12,00,000 are eligible for an interest subsidy of 4% on a loan limit of 9 lakh for twenty years or loan tenure, whichever is lower. The maximum carpet                area for this is 160 square meters.

  • Middle Income Group- II (MIG-II): 

              Here, the households with an income between 12,00,001 to 18,00,000 are eligible for a subsidy of 3% on a loan limited at 12 lakh for twenty years or loan tenure, whichever is less. The maximum carpet                  area for this is 200 square meters.

3. Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP)

Under AHP, the Government of India will provide central assistance of rupees 1.5 lakh per EWS house in those projects where, at least, 35% of the houses are for the economically weaker section category, and a single project consists of at least 250 houses.

4. Beneficiary-led individual house construction or enhancement (BLC)

Central Assistance up to Rs. 1.5 lakh per EWS house is provided to eligible families belonging to EWS categories for individual house construction/ enhancement. The Urban Local Bodies validate the information and building plan submitted by the beneficiary so that ownership of land and other details like economic status and eligibility can be ascertained. Central Assistance, along with State/UT/ ULB share, if any, is released to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) by States/UTs.

COVERAGE AND DURATION

All 4041 statutory towns as per Census 2011 with focus on 500 Class I cities would be covered in three phases as follows:

  • Phase I (April 2015 - March 2017) to cover 100 Cities selected from States/UTs as per their willingness.
  • Phase II (April 2017 - March 2019) to cover additional 200 Cities
  • Phase III (April 2019 - March 2022) to cover all other remaining Cities

PRADHAN MANTRI AWAS YOJANA AMRAVATI, MAHARASHTRA

In 1956, Amravati district became part of Bombay State and after its bifurcation in 1960, it became part of Maharashtra state. The NH6, which runs through City, is an important National Highway, which runs from Dhulia to Kolkata. NH6 is a part of Asian Highway 46. Maharashtra state transport buses are most commonly used by people to travel to rural parts of the region. The city bus transport is operated by the Amravati municipal corporation.

BLC or Beneficiary Led Construction is the fourth component of the mission to assist the individual eligible families belonging to EWS categories to either construct new houses or enhance existing houses on their own to cover the beneficiaries who are not able to take advantage of other components of the mission. In Maharashtra such families are supposed to avail central assistance of Rs. 1.5 lakh plus state assistance of Rs. 1 lakh (Total 2.5 Lakh) for construction of new houses under the mission and such beneficiaries should be part of HFAPoA (Housing for All Plan of Action).

The objective is to give mass support for the construction of houses up to 30 square meter carpet area with basic civic infrastructure by aiding EWS beneficiaries having their own land and these newly constructed house are to be registered preferably in the name of the female head of the family as per the guidelines.

The importance and need of implementing BLC (Beneficiary Led Construction - Vertical 4) under Prime Minister’s Awaas Yojana in Amravati is to enable or empower the EWS of the community to fulfil the objective of Housing for all Amravatikars by 2022.

The step by step deciding criteria being adopted is given below and it is as per the PMAY guidelines: - 

   1.  Beneficiaries desirous of availing this assistance shall/have approached the Municipal Corporation with adequate documentation regarding availability of land owned as well as possessed by them. Such                     beneficiaries are residing either in slums or outside the slums (On rent basis). Beneficiaries in slums which are not being redeveloped may be covered under this component if beneficiaries have a Kutcha                 house.

   2.The Municipal Corporation will continue/has conducted an online demand survey by providing proper application format along with uploading of scanned documents to preliminary validate the information given          by the beneficiaries such as ownership of land and other details of beneficiary like economic status and eligibility can be ascertained. In addition, the condition of the houses e.g., Kutcha, semi-kutcha etc. of        the prospective beneficiary will be checked to ensure beneficiary’s consequent eligibility for construction of new housing.

   3. On the basis of online received and validated applications, Municipal Corporation has prepared an integrated city-wide housing project for such individual beneficiaries in accordance with the HFA to ensure             construction of proposed houses are as per planning norms of the city and scheme is implemented in an integrated manner. For constructing the planned house fund is available to the beneficiary from                     different sources including his own contribution, GoI assistance & State assistance.

   4. Approval by States in SLSMC (State Level Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee).

   5. Municipal Corporation has ensured that required finance for constructing the planned house is available to the beneficiary from different sources including his own contribution, GoI assistance, State                    Government assistance. Central assistance will be released to the bank accounts of beneficiaries identified in projects as per recommendations.

   6. Though the funds from Central Government to State Governments are to be released in lump-sum including assistance for this component and State Government is going to release financial assistance to the           beneficiaries in 3-4 instalments depending on progress of construction of the house. Beneficiary may start the construction using his own funds or any other fund and GoI and State assistance will be                     release financial assistance to the beneficiaries in 3-4 instalments depending on progress of construction of the house. Beneficiary may start the construction using his own funds or any other fund and GoI           and State assistance will be released in proportion to the construction by individual beneficiary. The last instalment of Rs. 30,000/- of GoI/State assistance will be released only after completion of the               house.

  7. The progress of such individual houses should be tracked through geo-tagged photographs so that each house can be monitored effectively. Municipal Corporation, Amravati has developed an online system for        tracking progress of such houses through geotagged photographs.

PROGRESS MADE TILL DATE

40% of sanctioned houses were completed under PMAY-Urban by 2020-21

According to a parliament response in Lok Sabha from July 2021, the construction of a total of 45.7 lakh houses was complete under PMAY-U in the five-year period from 2016-17 to 2020-21 while over 1.12 crore houses were sanctioned for construction. Overall, about 40% of the sanctioned houses were completed under PMAY-U.

On the other hand, during the same period, construction of a total of 1.38 crore houses was complete under PMAY-G while over 1.99 crore houses were sanctioned. Over 69% of the sanctioned houses were complete under PMAY-G by the end of 2020-21. 

11 states accounted for 86% of houses complete under PMAY-U

Of the 45.7 lakh houses constructed under PMAY-U, 7.84 lakh houses were completed in Uttar Pradesh and 5.53 lakh houses in Gujarat. Along with Maharashtra (4.36 lakh), Madhya Pradesh (4.29 lakh), and Andhra Pradesh (4.21 lakh), where more than 4 lakh houses each were constructed, the five states together accounted for more than 57% of the houses constructed under PMAY-U by the end of 2020-21. In all, 11 states where more than 1 lakh houses each were constructed, together accounted for 86% of the houses constructed under PMAY-U by the end of 2020-21. 

                                                                 Source: loksabhaquestions/annex/176/AU1827


FUNDING MECHANISMS

Under PMAY-U, the Centre had sanctioned almost Rs. 1.65 lakh crores for the implementation of the scheme to the states/UTs in the five years between 2016-17 and 2020-21. However, of this, only about Rs. 92,574 crores were released during this period, amounting to 56% of the total amount sanctioned by 2020-21. Further, only 45% of the total sanctioned central assistance was utilized for PMAY-U by the end of 2020-21. 

Out of the total sanctioned funds under PMAY-U, Uttar Pradesh received the greatest amount of over Rs. 26,595 crores. The sanctioned amount was over Rs. 20,000 crores each for the states of Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra. The allocation was over Rs. 10,000 crores each for the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. These six states together accounted for 67% of the total sanctioned amount under PMAY-U by the end of 2020-21.

AFFORDABLE RENTAL HOUSING COMPLEXES (ARHCS) FOR MIGRANT WORKERS/ URBAN POOR

COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in reverse migration of urban migrants/ poor in the country. Urban migrants stay in slums/ informal settlements/ unauthorised colonies/ peri-urban areas to save cost on housing. They need decent rental housing at affordable rate at their work sites. In order to address this need, Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs has initiated Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs), a sub-scheme under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban (PMAY-U).

This will provide ease of living to urban migrants/ poor in Industrial Sector as well as in non-formal urban economy to get access to dignified affordable rental housing close to their workplace. The ARHC scheme will be implemented through two models:

    1. Utilizing existing Government funded vacant houses to convert into ARHCs through Public Private Partnership or by Public Agencies

    2. Construction, Operation and Maintenance of ARHCs by Public/ Private Entities on their own vacant land.

                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                     Fig 3: Target beneficiaries of PMAY(U)

                                                                                                                             Source: PMAY

Incentives will be provided to public/ private entities by Central/ State Government for developing & operating ARHCs which will include additional FAR/FSI, Income tax and GST exemption, Single window approval within 30 days, Project finance at lower interest rate, Trunk infrastructure till project site, Municipal services at residential rates and Use permission changes for houses for the vacant land.

Beneficiaries for ARHCs are urban migrants/ poor from EWS/LIG categories comprising of street vendors, rickshaw pullers and other service providers, industrial workers along with migrants working with market/ trade associations, educational/ health institutions, hospitality sector, long term tourists/ visitors, students or any other category.

NTR HOUSING SCHEME

Under NTR Housing Scheme from the Andhra Pradesh government, the Centre offers subsidies for homes linked with the PMAY scheme. In this scheme, the beneficiary has to contribute only one-third amount of the principal. The NTR housing scheme spans over urban as well as rural areas to give shelter to the underprivileged in the state. People with below poverty line (BPL) cards are eligible to apply under this scheme. The eligible applicants must not possess any other house or land under the Government housing scheme and must be a citizen of Andhra Pradesh.

ANALYSIS

The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana has adopted a decentralised system of financing the development and construction of the housing. But, due to a gap between people’s aspirations and capabilities and the state’s imagination regarding housing, the speed of the mission has been somewhat sluggish. Ownership of land is a prerequisite in the BLC and CLSS options, and most of the urban slum households do not own land and are thus ineligible under these options. Also, the absence of certain security documents with the people who want to avail the benefits under these options has led to their inability in doing so.

The scheme’s attempt to promote women empowerment by mandating a female head as owner or co-owner of the property is laudable. A total of 1.04 crore houses were sanctioned under PMAY-U out of which around 33.50 lakh have been constructed and delivered and around 64 lakh units are at various stages of construction. Extension of CLSS till 31st March 2021 has opened up benefits for MIG categories and in recent developments, the government has announced the conversion of government-funded housing in urban areas into Affordable Rental Housing Complexes. A public-private partnership model will be implemented here. With its various pros and cons, the overall outlook on the scheme is still inclined to be optimistic.

CONCLUSION

Rapid growth of the urban population leading to housing shortages and poor urban living conditions is a prime challenge for the government of India. It was observed that in India, a number of housing programmes have been implemented since Independence by different governments. Recently launched affordable housing scheme, PMAY Housing for All (Urban) which aims to provide housing for EWS/LIG and MIG categories including the slum dwellers by ensuring a pucca house with basic amenities by 2022. 

REFERENCES

  1. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, Scheme Guidelines, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India.

  2. https://pmay-urban.gov.in/about

  3. Analysis of government schemes on affordable housing By Diva Rai

  4. PMAY (U) progress- https://factly.in/data-less-than-50-of-the-houses-sanctioned-under-pmay-urban-constructed-by-the-end-of-2020-21/












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