An urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and resource efficiently. The term smart city was coined towards the end of the 20th century. A smart city can be defined as smart when investment in human and social capital, traditional and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure, fuel, sustainable economic development and a high quality of life with a wise management of natural resources through participatory actions and engagements. Smart city offers sustainability in terms of economic activities and employment opportunities to wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of educations, skills or income levels. Smart city components are as follows,
1) Smart Mobility
2) Smart People
3) Smart economy
4) Smart Environment
5) smart Government
6) Smart Living
The Government of India launched National Smart Cities Mission an urban renewal and retrofitting program with the mission to develop smart cities across the country, making them citizen friendly and sustainable. The Union Ministry of Urban Development is responsible for implementing the mission in collaboration with the state governments of the respective cities. The mission initially included 100 cities, with the deadline for completion of the projects set between 2019 and 2023. On 7 September 2019, the 10,000-acre Aurangabad Industrial City (AURIC) in Aurangabad, Maharashtra was inaugurated as the first greenfield industrial smart city of India. Smart Cities Mission envisions developing an area within the cities in the country as model areas based on an area development plan, which is expected to have a rub-off effect on other parts of the city, and nearby cities and towns. Cities will be selected based on the Smart Cities challenge, where cities will compete in a countrywide competition to obtain the benefits from this mission. As of January 2018, 99 cities have been selected to be upgraded as part of the Smart Cities Mission after they defeated other cities in the challenge. The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) program used a competition-based method as a means for selecting cities for funding, based on an area-based development strategy. Cities competed at the state level with other cities within the state. The Dholera Special Investment Region (DSIR) a biggest greenfield smarty city is proposed as a major new industrial hub to be located about 100 kilometres (km) south of and 130 km from within the peninsula. The site covers an area of about 920 sq.km of land bordering the . The DSIR is the first investment region to be designated under the proposed (DMIC), a joint Indian and Japanese initiative to create a linear zone of development along a Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) railway line. The Dholera Smart City aims at the creation of an economically and socially balanced, new age City with world class infrastructure and high quality of life. Adoption of a sustainable approach across key components such as transportation, waste recycling, overall urban form and resource efficiency form the cornerstones of this Plan. The land use is allocated based upon twelve spatial planning principles as follows,
· Creation of a compact city;
· Integration of land uses;
· Accessibility of industrial zones;
· Focus of the city internally away from the central expressway, which will only have limited access;
· Separation of industrial and city traffic;
· Provision for a high quality public transport system;
· Development of a poly-centric structure that has a number of commercial and community nodes;
· Integration of existing villages into the new city;
· Conservation of the better agricultural land;
· Protection of the CRZ;
· Development of a strong landscape strategy; and
· A phased development programme that allows optimised investment.
The smart city can be green field or brown field. There is need to adopt the smart technology and solutions in integration of land uses to upgrade the citizens and increase the standard of living and quality of life. Smart Cities improve urban planning and the environment. More and better green areas, peripheral areas, etc. Automatic and efficient management of urban infrastructures. Improved energy savings, energy efficiency improvements etc. Improvement in mobility and urban parking management, to improve traffic and reduce parking times, reduce queues and waiting times at municipal offices and health centres, etc. The possible smart solutions and technology can be adopted in order to make cities more smart and citizens smarter with innovation and upgradation in technology as follows,
1) One monitoring a web portal features: which serves all drivers and vehicles in country. Citizens can access traffic information collected from surveillance, cameras installed on roads and taxi vehicles using GPS. Provides information where road work in progress, traffic images of major highways, traffic news, travel time calculator, road maps, street direction and parking information. Parking guidance system which will provide real time information on parking availability, information can be displayed on electronic board or online on one monitoring portal or on mobile applications. Express monitoring and advisory system, vehicle recovery system: In this system land transport authority will be using cameras to took out for road accidents. On detection of an incident land transport authority can activate vehicle recovery which can reach site in few minutes. Smart live electronic device displaying the real time of vehicle and this system can be used to alter the driver if violating speed. Need to adopt strong policy curtailing car ownerships as on effort to reduce the no. of vehicles.
2) Need to set up web based electronic police centre which will be provide information like crimes record, unsafe areas, helpline numbers, file police reports online.
3) Install smart waste bins, with monitor attached on bins can collet information on content and location. The information can be transmitted to a garbage team through a central server. The waste collection team can optimise their route planning with information provided by sensors.
4) Adoption of four tap strategies which talks about improvement of water catchment of reservoirs, recycling of water, rain water harvesting and desalination. Mobile apps available to view and pay water bills online.
5) Smart sensors embedded inside household appliances, smart lighting system in office buildings, installation of smart meters with a display system displaying real tie information on electricity and water consumption.
The planners need to focus creating such smart city models in order to achieve the goal ‘Housing for all by 2022’ and fulfil the requirement of infrastructure, employment etc. Planners also need to focus on achieving the components of smart city like smart governance, smart mobility, smart living, smart environment etc. This is only possible with active public participation and raising awareness about the smart cities. We need smart people to create smart cities. Smart cities need also to focus on achieving five pillars of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan (India’s Self-reliant program) like an economy that takes quantum jumps and not incremental change, infrastructure should be world class and fulfil the identity of India which is synonymous with modern India, a system that is based on technology driven arrangements fulfilling the dreams of the 21st Century not the policy of past century, a vibrant demography which is the source of energy for a self-reliant India and demand, whereby the strength of our demand supply should be utilized to full capacity. This would be possible only by following this India’s development mantra “Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas” (Collective Effort, Inclusive Development).
Together We Will Grow, Together We Will Build