China–India relations, also called Sino-Indo relations or Indian-Chinese relations, refers to the bilateral relationship between China and India. Although the relationship has been cordial, there have been border disputes. China and India are the two most populous countries and fastest growing major economies in the world. Growth in diplomatic and economic influence has increased the significance of their bilateral relationship. Bilateral trade between China and India touched US$89.6 billion in 2017–18, with the trade deficit widening to US$62.9 billion in China's favour. In 2017, the volume of bilateral trade between India & China stands at US$84.5 billion. Chinese exports to India amounted to $58.4 billion or 2.3% of its overall exports, and 12.6% of India's overall imports in 2014. The 10 major commodities exported from China to India are Electronic equipment ($16 billion), Machines, engines, pumps ($9.8 billion), Organic chemicals($6.3 billion), Fertilizers($2.7 billion), Iron and steel($2.3 billion), Plastics($1.7 billion), Iron or steel products($1.4 billion), Gems, precious metals, coins($1.3 billion), Ships, boats($1.3 billion), Medical, technical equipment($1.2 billion).
On 10 May 2020, Chinese and Indian troops clashed in Nathu La, Sikkim, leaving 11 soldiers injured. Following the skirmishes in Sikkim, tensions between the two countries grew in Ladakh with a build-up of troops at multiple locations. 20 Indian and 43 PLA soldiers were reportedly killed in action on the night of 15/16 June. Following the Galwan Valley clash on 15 June 2020, there were renewed calls across India to boycott Chinese goods. The question may arise that what may the role of urban planning after boycotting the China products in India? and how the India can become self-reliant and revive its economy after boycotting China products? This question will be answered with the solutions in next five points and strategies,
1) Special Economic Zones: In India there are total 238 SEZs present in various state. A Special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include increased trade balance, employment, increased investment, job creation and effective administration. The creation of special economic zones by the host country may be motivated by the desire to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). The benefits a company gains by being in a special economic zone may mean that it can produce and trade goods at a lower price, aimed at being globally competitive. The Government and Planners need to focus on creating the SEZs in order to boost the trade activities, investment in business and increase employment opportunities. The policies may be created to attract foreign companies for direct investment and manufacture the products completely in India with some reliefs in taxes. This is possible by creating Foreign-trade zone (FTZ) which is a class of special economic zone. It is a geographic area where goods may be landed, stored, handled, manufactured, or reconfigured and re-exported under specific customs regulation and generally not subject to customs duty. Free trade zones are generally organized around major seaports, international airports, and national frontiers areas with many geographic advantages for trade. Free economic zones need to adopted which is a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries. The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity. This zone will attract businessman, companies to invest and start manufacturing the products that will be completely made in India and will be an important step in self-reliant programme of India. Creating SEZs will also help to solve the problem of lack of infrastructure in India. This step will lead to creation of more employment opportunities and will help to revive the economy of India.
2) Urban Haats: The scheme for establishing Urban haats was introduced by Ministry of Textiles, GoI. The objective of the scheme is to setup a Infrastructure and Technology Support permanent marketing infrastructure in big towns/ metropolitan cities to provide direct marketing facilities to the handicraft’s artisans/handloom weavers. The scheme is implemented through State Handicrafts/Handlooms Development Corporations/Tourism Development Corporations/ Urban Local Bodies with sufficient financial resources and organizational capacity to implement the project. The planners need to focus on creating urban haats in cities so that handicrafts artisans, handloom weavers, crockeries and toys manufacturer, electronic equipment, iron and steel, machines, engines and pumps, dairy products, snacks etc can do marketing, organise exhibition and commercialization of products made in India and will encourage to manufacture good and commodities at a large scale in India. Establishing urban haats will help the citizens to know more about the local products and equipment’s made in India. This will help to make citizens rely less on foreign products and use of maximum products made in India. This action would lead to vocal for local. 'Vocal for local' is the Indian Prime Minster, Narendra Modi's appeal to all the Indians to use only Indian products an important strategy for self-reliant India.
3) Skilled Labours: The proportion of formally skilled workers in India is extremely low, at 4.69% of total workforce as of 2019. The labours are important assets for the production of goods and services and India is lacking in having a skilled labour workforce. The planners need to focus on making the policies programs and advising the government to establish vocational training centre in cities/towns, where companies from industries will be giving a training program for unskilled labours for short span of time and making them liable to earn income and gain employment opportunities. This program will help the industries to have a skilled labour workforce and increase the percentage skilled labours in India. The lack of skilled labour workforce signifies that the production and manufacturing of good and services are limited and do not provide the quality required. So, citizens rely more on the products manufactured in foreign countries. The vocational training centres will help to increase in skilled labour workforce in India and encourage the industries to manufacture the products at a faster rate with quality improvisation in products. So that citizens can rely more on the products Made in India. This intervention for labours will help to make self-reliant program a grand success and achieving vocal for local.
4) "Make in India" is an initiative which was launched on 25 September 2014 with three major objectives: (a) to increase the manufacturing sector's growth rate to 12-14% per annum in order to increase the sector's share in the economy; (b) to create 100 million additional manufacturing jobs in the economy by 2025; and (c) to ensure that the manufacturing sector's contribution to GDP is increased to 25% by 2025. The policy approach was to create a conducive environment for investments, develop modern and efficient infrastructure, and open up new sectors for foreign capital. India jumped to 63rd place out of 190 countries in the world Banks' 2019 Ease of Doing Business Index from 130th in 2016. The planners need to focus on adopting the policies to encourage the engineers for complete manufacturing of the electronic equipment and attract foreign companies in India itself rather than relying on importing different parts from China. India is dependent on 90% of raw material from China required to manufacture medicines. There is need to change these mindsets and need to adopt the policies/schemes that will encourage the Indian and attract foreign pharmaceuticals companies to produce raw material in India itself required to manufacture medicines as a bilateral trade. India ranks 63rd in ease of doing business the reason is expensive land and lack of infrastructure. The planners need to focus on fulfilling the lack in infrastructure through development plans, regional plans and local area plans of cities/towns. The government need to focus on adopting the polices that will make the land values low for investment in the manufacturing sector that will increase the ease of doing business. Doing this will help to manufacture each and every product, goods, equipment in India itself rather than relying on China. Planners need to go for cluster development. Suppose the construction is going in particular area and material required is imported from different states and countries, but in cluster development all the material required for construction, manufacturing purpose will be made available in the cluster itself. This will foster the development process and fulfil the lack in infrastructure at a faster rate. Make in India initiative will help to boost manufacturing sector at a large scale. This initiative will help to grow business sector at a faster rate and encourage to make products in India itself. This will be a step towards self-reliant program of India.
5) Smart Industrial Cities: Planners need to go for the greenfield smart industrial cities like AURIC industrial city located in Aurangabad, Maharashtra with the use technology for infrastructure upgradation. The smart industrial cities need to be equipped with infrastructure for industrial usage with main focus on textile, food, defence, engineering, automobile and electronics etc. The intention of creating smart industrial cities should also be focused on residential, commercial and other purposes with 60:40 percentage. The planned smart industrial townships will act as an investment node. Also, this city will fulfil the infrastructure, housing, income, employment and basic amenities requirement. This city will prove as a financial hub with focus on manufacturing and business sector and encourage to make good and commodities in India itself. This will make sure the less dependence on China to import the commodities required to manufacture products in India. Else it may increase the percentage of export of goods manufacture in India to other countries. This initiation will help to revive economy of India after boycotting China products.
Adopting this strategies will definitely help to achieve the five pillars of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan (self-reliant program of India) like an economy that takes quantum jumps and not incremental change, infrastructure should be world class and fulfil the identity of India which is synonymous with modern India, a system that is based on technology driven arrangements fulfilling the dreams of the 21st Century not the policy of past century, a vibrant demography which is the source of energy for a self-reliant India and demand, whereby the strength of our demand supply should be utilized to a full capacity. If a soldier can sacrifice their life for safety and security of the country, then why not all the planners comes together and take a pledge and commit to make India a developed country and leading economy in the world. If all planners, bureaucrats, experts, youths, engineers and scientists unite and decide to make India a self- reliant India, then why else need to rely on foreign countries products and we can achieve the strategy vocal for local and be self-independent.
Together we will build, Together we will grow